Colorectal Cancer Treatment in Navi Mumbai

Colorectal Cancer

Colon cancer is a form of cancer that originates from the large intestine, also called the colon. The colon is the last part of your digestive tract. Colon cancer is sometimes referred to as colorectal cancer, which is a term that combines colon cancer and rectal cancer, which originates from the rectum. Colorectal cancer generally affects older adults; however, it can occur at any age. It usually starts as a small, noncancerous (benign) cluster of cells called polyps that develop on the inside of the colon. Over a period of time, some of these polyps become cancerous and give rise to colorectal cancers. Polyps are usually small and produce few to no symptoms. That is why we recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by diagnosing and removing polyps before they turn cancerous.

Some people with colorectal cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they vary from one patient to the other, and depend on the size of cancer and its location in the large intestine. Signs and symptoms of colon carcinoma may include some changes in your bowel habits such as diarrhea or a change in your stool consistency, rectal bleeding or presence of blood in your stool, continuous abdominal pain or discomfort, or a feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation. Weakness, fatigue and sudden unexplained weight loss may also be experienced.

If you chronically have any of the symptoms mentioned above, you must visit our hospital and make an appointment with an expert doctor.

The cause of most colorectal cancers is not known. Generally, colorectal cancers begin when healthy cells in the colon undergo changes or mutations in their DNA. Healthy cells grow and divide in an organised fashion to keep the body functioning optimally. But when a cell's DNA is affected and becomes cancerous, cells continue to divide randomly even when there is no requirement for new cells. As the cells accumulate in excess, a tumour is formed. Over time, the cancer cells proliferate to invade and destroy the normal tissues nearby. They can even travel to other parts of the body to form deposits called metastasis.

Here are some common factors known to increase your risk of colorectal cancer. They include:

  • Older age
    Colorectal cancers can be diagnosed at any age, but most people with colon cancer are above 50 years of age. However, the incidence of colon cancer in people younger than 50 has been increasing in recent years.
  • African-American race
    African-Americans have an increased risk of colon cancer than people of other races.
  • A previous history of colorectal cancer or polyps
    If you had colorectal cancer or noncancerous colon polyps in the past, you have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer in the future.
  • Inflammatory conditions of the intestine
    Chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine, like ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, can increase your risk of developing colon cancer.
  • Familial syndromes that increase colon cancer risk
    Some gene mutations passed down through generations in your family can significantly augment your risk of developing colon cancer. However, a very small percentage of colon cancers have a link to inherited genes. The most common inherited syndromes that augment the risk of developing colon cancer are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, also called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).
  • Family history of colon cancer
    Your risk of having colorectal cancer increases significantly if your blood relatives have it. The risk is more if more than one family member has colon or rectal cancer.
  • Low-fiber, high-fat diet
    Colorectal cancer has been found to be associated with a diet low in fiber and high in fat and calories. Research has found an increased risk of colon cancer in people who eat red meat and processed meat in excess amounts.
  • A sedentary lifestyle
    People who stay physically inactive are more likely to develop colon cancer, as getting regular physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer.
  • Diabetes
    People having diabetes or insulin resistance have an increased risk of developing colon cancer.
  • Obesity
    Obese people are at a higher risk to develop colon cancer than people with a normal BMI.
  • Smoking
    Smoking increases the susceptibility to developing colon cancer.
  • Alcohol
    Heavy alcohol consumption increases your risk of developing colon cancer.
  • Radiation therapy for cancer
    If you have undergone radiation therapy as a part of treatment for previous cancers, your chances of developing colon cancer increase.

Screening for colorectal cancer

It is recommended that people with an average risk of colon cancer should undergo colon cancer screening at around 45 years of age. However, people with an increased risk, such as those with a family history of colon cancer, should undergo screening sooner. Several screening options are available; each has its own benefits and drawbacks. Our expert doctors will thoroughly analyse your medical records and current health before choosing suitable tests.

Lifestyle changes

The risk of developing colorectal cancer can be decreased significantly by adopting healthy lifestyle changes such as:

  • Consume a good quantity of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains contain useful vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants, which are believed to play a role in cancer prevention.
  • Decrease your alcohol consumption.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Do some physical exercise for at least 30 mins on most days of the week. If you've been physically inactive lately, you can start with fewer minutes and build up gradually to 30 minutes.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Take measures to maintain a healthy weight by combining a balanced diet with daily exercise. If you are required to lose weight, ask our doctors about healthy ways to help you achieve your goal. Our team of doctors are always there to assist you with anything that may help you stay fit and healthy.

Colon cancer prevention for high-risk people

Suppose you are at an increased risk of developing colon cancer. In that case, our doctors can suggest some medications that have been found to decrease the risk of precancerous polyps or colon cancer.

Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital is one of the Best Cancer Treatment Hospitals in Navi Mumbai. In our oncology department, the treatment for colorectal cancer is decided by a strong multidisciplinary team consisting of expert professional medical and radiation oncologists, a gastroenterologist, physician assistants, oncology nurses, and other healthcare providers. The best Doctors for Colon Cancer in Navi Mumbai work in collaboration to create the patient's overall treatment plan that generally includes a combination of treatment modalities.

Surgery for early-stage colon cancer

If your colon cancer is small, we recommend a minimally invasive surgery, such as:

  • Polypectomy
    If the cancer is small, confined to the local tissue, contained within a polyp, and in an early stage, it is possible to remove it completely during a colonoscopy.
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection
    Bigger polyps can be removed during colonoscopy, but special tools are needed to remove the polyp, and some tissues from the inner lining of the colon with a procedure known as endoscopic mucosal resection.
  • Minimally invasive surgery or laparoscopic surgery
    Polyps that are not possible to be removed during a colonoscopy can be removed using laparoscopic surgery. Fir this procedure, multiple tiny incisions are made in the abdomen through which some instruments, including cameras, are introduced. The internal structure of the colon is visualised on a video monitor in the operation theatre. Some samples from the lymph nodes draining the tumour may also be taken.

Surgery for more advanced colon cancer

If the cancer is advanced, more extensive procedures may be needed:

  • Partial colectomy
    This procedure involves removing the part of the colon that contains cancer. A small part of normal tissue on either side of the tumor may also be resected. The healthy parts of the colon or rectum are then reconnected. This procedure is generally performed by a minimally invasive laparoscopic approach. If reconnecting the healthy portions of your colon is not possible, a temporary or permanent ostomy may be needed. It involves making an opening in the abdominal wall from a portion of the remaining bowel for the removal of stool into a bag that fits tightly over the opening.
  • Removal of lymph nodes
    During the colon cancer surgery, the nearby lymph nodes are usually removed and sent for biopsy

Surgery for extensively advanced cancer

If cancer has advanced to a great extent or the patient's overall health is very poor, an operation is done to help relieve a blockage of your colon or to relieve symptoms may be considered. Such surgery is not aimed at curing cancer but instead at relieving the symptoms like pain or bleeding.

  • Chemotherapy
    During chemotherapy, certain drugs are used to destroy the cancerous cells. Chemotherapy is usually given after surgery if the cancer is big or if it has spread to the lymph nodes. Chemotherapy destroys any remaining cancer cells in the body and helps reduce the chances of recurrence of cancer. Chemotherapy is sometimes also used before the surgery to shrink a big tumour so that it can be easily removed during surgery.
  • Radiation therapy
    During radiation therapy, powerful energy sources like X-rays are used to destroy cancer cells. Like chemotherapy, radiotherapy can also be used to shrink large cancer before surgery so that it can be resected more easily. When surgery is not possible, radiation therapy might be used as an option to relieve symptoms, such as pain. Radiotherapy is sometimes combined with chemotherapy to get a better outcome.
  • Targeted drug therapy
    Targeted drug treatments are focused on specific defects present within cancer cells. By blocking these defects, targeted drug treatments can destroy the cancer cells. These are typically used in patients with advanced colon cancer.
  • Immunotherapy
    Immunotherapy is a treatment modality that stimulates the immune system to fight cancer. Sometimes the immune system may not attack the cancer cells because the cancer cells produce proteins that prevent the immune system cells from recognising the cancer cells. Immunotherapy interferes with that process and aids in destroying the cancer cells. Immunotherapy is done for advanced colon cancers.

Palliative care is specialised medical care that focuses on providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a serious illness. Palliative care is provided by the palliative care team, which comprises doctors, nurses, and other specially trained professionals. Palliative care is designed ti improve the quality of life for the patients and their families. During Colorectal Cancer Treatment in Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Navi Mumbai it is offered alongside curative or other treatments you may be receiving. When palliative care is given along with all other appropriate treatments, people with cancer may feel better and live longer.