Skin Cancer Treatment Hospital in Navi Mumbai

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is cancer that develops due to the abnormal growth of skin cells, most often due to the effect of sun exposure on the skin. There are three main types of skin cancers - basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Rarer types of skin cancer include Kaposi's sarcoma and Merkel cell carcinoma. Checking the skin for any suspicious changes and reporting them to a doctor as soon as possible can help detect skin cancer at its earlier stages when the chances of successful treatment are the highest.

Skin cancer occurs primarily on sun-exposed areas like skin, the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms and hands. However, it can also develop in places that are not exposed to the sun, like the palms, beneath the fingers, and the genital area, especially in people of colour.

  • Basal cell carcinoma
    It generally occurs in sun-exposed areas of the body, such as the neck or the face. Its symptoms include a pearly or waxy bump, a flesh-coloured scar-like lesion, or a bleeding sore that bleeds and is recurrent.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
    It also usually occurs in sun-exposed areas like the face, ears, and hands. But sometimes, it can occur in areas that aren't often exposed to the sun, especially in darker people. It develops in the form of a firm, red nodule or a flat lesion with a scaly, crusty surface.
  • Melanoma
    It can develop in any location on the skin, either in the form of a new mole or cancerous changes in a pre-existing mole. In males, melanoma commonly appears on the face or the trunk, while it develops on the legs in females. In both cases, it can occur on areas of the skin not exposed to the sun. Melanoma presents as a large brown spot on the skin, a change in colour, size, or feel of a pre-existing mole, a painful lesion that itches and bleeds, or dark lesions in the palms, soles, fingertips, or mucous membranes lining the mouth, nose, vagina, or anus.
  • Kaposi sarcoma
    It is a rare form of skin cancer developing in the blood vessels of the skin and presenting as red or purple patches on the skin or the mucous membranes. It generally occurs in immunocompromised people such as people with AIDS or in people who require to take immunosuppressive medications regularly like after an organ transplant.
  • Merkel cell carcinoma
    This rare type of skin cancer forms firm, shiny nodules on or just beneath the skin and in hair follicles. It is most commonly seen on the head, neck, and trunk.
  • Sebaceous gland carcinoma
    It is a rare, aggressive tumour originating from the oil glands of the skin called the sebaceous glands. They usually appear as hard, painless nodules and can develop anywhere but most specifically on the eyelids.

If you observe any abnormal changes to your skin that worry you, you must make an appointment with an expert doctor. The presence of the above symptoms might not necessarily mean that you have cancer; however, your doctor will investigate the skin changes to determine a cause.

Skin cancer develops due to the mutations that occur in the DNA of the skin cells. These DNA mutations cause abnormal proliferation or multiplication of skin cells, giving rise to a tumour or a mass of abnormal cells. The main cause of DNA mutations in the skin cells is exposure to UV radiation from the sunlight. However, this does not explain the development of skin cancer in areas not exposed to sunlight, indicating that there are other factors responsible for causing skin cancers, including exposure to toxic substances or having a disease that debilitates the immune system.

  • Fair skin
    Skin cancer can occur even in dark-skinned people. However, fair-skinned people have a higher chance of developing skin cancer. This is because they have a lesser amount of melanin pigment in their skin, which is protective against the UV radiations of the sun.
  • Past history of sunburns
    If you had one or a few blistering sunburns in childhood or as a teenager, your risk of developing skin cancer as an adult increases. Aggressive sunburns in adulthood also count as a risk factor.
  • Excessive sun exposure
    If you spend a substantial amount of time in the sun, you may develop skin cancer. The risk is especially more if the skin isn't protected by sunscreen with a good sun protection formula or clothing.
  • Sunny or high-altitude climates
    The risk of developing skin cancer is higher in people who reside in sunny, warm climates or those who live at higher altitudes. This is because they are exposed more directly to the sun's rays.
  • Moles
    The presence of a lot of moles or a few abnormal-looking moles increases the risk of developing skin cancer. A mole is said to be abnormal if its margins are irregular looking and are larger than the normal moles.
  • Precancerous skin lesions
    The presence of premalignant skin lesions like actinic keratosis can increase the risk of developing skin cancer. These skin lesions typically appear as rough, scaly patches ranging from brown to dark pink in colour. They are most commonly seen on the face, head and hands of people with fair skin exposed to sun damage.
  • Family history
    Your chances of developing skin cancer increase if someone in your family or a close blood relative suffers from the disease.
  • Past personal history of skin cancer
    If you had and recovered from skin cancer in the past, your risk of developing it again increases.
  • Immunocompromised individuals
    Individuals who have a weakened immune system, including people with HIV or those who are on immunosuppressant drugs after organ transplant, have a greater risk of developing skin cancer.
  • Exposure to radiation
    Individuals who were exposed to radiation as a treatment for skin conditions such as eczema and acne have an increased risk of developing skin cancer, especially basal cell carcinoma.
  • Exposure to toxic substances
    Exposure to certain substances such as arsenic may increase the risk of developing skin cancer.
  • Avoid sun exposure during the earlier part of the day. The sun's rays are the strongest, with the highest UV radiation content between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Schedule outdoor plans for other parts of the day, even if the sky is cloudy or in winter.
  • Wear sunscreen with adequate SPF all year round. Broad-spectrum sunscreens help protect the skin against the sun's harmful rays, even if they don't filter out all harmful UV radiation, especially the radiations that cause melanoma. The sunscreen must be applied generously and reapplied every two hours.
  • Wear protective clothing. As sunscreens don't protect the skin completely from the UV rays, wearing dark, tightly woven clothing that covers the arms and legs in addition to a broad-brimmed hat will provide the extra protection. Do not forget to safeguard your eyes by wearing good quality sunglasses whenever you are in the sun.
  • Observe your skin regularly for any changes like the development of new skin growths, moles, freckles or changes in a pre-existing skin lesion and report them to your doctor
  • Skin examination
    The skin is examined very carefully to look for any abnormalities or changes that may indicate skin cancer. If a suspected lesion is found, further tests may be required to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Biopsy
    It is done for those who have highly suspicious skin lesions for malignancy. A sample from the suspicious-looking lesion is taken and sent for histopathological examination to look for any cancerous cells. Apart from confirming the diagnosis, a biopsy also helps determine the type of skin cancer.

After establishing a diagnosis of skin cancer, it is very important to stage it. Superficial skin cancers rarely metastasize, so a biopsy that removes the entire growth is the only test needed to determine the cancer stage. However, for large squamous cell carcinomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, or melanomas, further tests may be recommended to determine the extent of cancer.

The stages of skin cancer are indicated by using Roman numerals I to IV. Stage I indicates that the cancer is small, less aggressive, and confined to the area where it started, while stage IV indicates advanced cancer that has metastasized to other body areas. Staging cancer is very important in determining which treatment options will be most effective.

Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Navi Mumbai is the Best Skin Cancer treatment hospital in Navi Mumbai. Our team consists of the best doctors for Skin Cancer in Navi Mumbai who provide ideal treatment plans combining their medical skills and experience with the state-of-the-art equipment and advanced technology of the machines the hospital houses. The treatment options for skin cancer depend on the size, type, depth and location of cancer. Small, less aggressive skin cancers confined to the skin's surface may not require treatment except for an initial skin biopsy aimed at removing the entire growth. Treatment options for more skin cancer include:

  • Cryosurgery
    It involves destroying actinic keratoses and small, early skin cancers by freezing them after exposure to extremely low temperatures in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The dead tissue thaws and sloughs off.
  • Excisional surgery
    This treatment modality is appropriate for the majority of skin cancers. The cancerous tissue is excised along with a margin of surrounding healthy tissue.
  • Mohs surgery
    This procedure is reserved for larger, recurring or aggressive skin cancers, including basal and squamous cell carcinomas. It is preferred in areas where the aim is to conserve as much skin as possible, such as on the nose. During this procedure, the surgeon resects the cancer layer by layer, observing each layer under the microscope very carefully until no cancerous cells remain. In this way, the cancerous cells are removed without having to excise an excessive amount of the surrounding healthy tissues.
  • Chemotherapy
    It is a treatment modality that uses specialised substances called chemotherapeutic agents to kill and destroy cancer cells. Systemic chemotherapy is sometimes used to treat metastatic skin cancers.
  • Radiation therapy
    This therapy uses high-powered rays of energy from sources like X-rays and protons to destroy cancer cells. The energy rays come from a machine that revolves around the body of the patient as he lies on a table. Radiation therapy is sometimes given prior to surgery to shrink the tumour or destroy any remaining cancerous cells after surgery.
  • Photodynamic therapy
    Laser light and specialised drugs are combinedly and used to destroy the skin cancer cells.