Heart Care


    What are the common cardiac/heart diseases?

    • Heart attack  (this is the commonest cause of death in India)
    • Heart failure
    • Arrhythmias
    • Valvular heart diseases
    • Congenital heart disease

    What are the risk factors for cardiac diseases?

    Non-modifiable risk factors:

    • Hereditary (risk is increased by 2 times)
    • Gender (males> females)
    • Age (increases with age)

    Modifiable risk factors

    • Smoking/ Tobacco chewing
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • High blood cholesterol
    • Obesity
    • Physical inactivity
    • Stress and behavior

    Lifestyle: Dos and Don'ts for a healthy heart


    • Avoid smoking
    • Avoid excessive  alcohol intake
    • Stress and behavioural modification (meditation, yoga, etc.)
    • Stay active (regular exercise), loose weight, if needed.
    • Regular health check-ups. Take prescribed medications for high blood pressure, diabetes and cholesterol.


    • Smoking, tobacco chewing
    • Excessive alcohol intake
    • Stressful lifestyle
    • High cholesterol diet
    • Physical inactivity, continue to be overweight.
    • Avoid visiting the doctor. Let diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol remain untreated.

    What is a heart attack?

    • Heart attack (this is the commonest cause of death in India)
    • Heart failure
    • Arrhythmias
    • Valvular heart diseases
    • Congenital heart diseases

    What are the symptoms of a heart attack?

    Heart attacks can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild to intense. Women, the elderly, and people with diabetes are more likely to have subtle or unusual symptoms.Symptoms in adults may include:

    • Chest pain
    • Usually in the centre of the chest
    • Lasts for a few minutes, or comes and goes
    • May feel like pressure, squeezing, fullness
    • Pain may be felt in other areas of the upper body, such as the jaw, shoulder, one or both arms, back, and stomach area
    • Cold sweat
    • Light-headedness
    • Nausea
    • Heartburn 
    • Abdominal pain
    • Numbness, aching, or tingling in the arm (usually the left arm)
    • Shortness of breath
    • Weakness or fatigue, particularly in the elderly
    • Women are more likely than men to have symptoms of nausea, vomiting, fatigue, back or jaw pain, and shortness of breath, either alone or with chest pain

    Dos and Don'ts when dealing with a heart attack

    • Have the person sit down, rest, and try to keep calm
    • Loosen any tight clothing
    • Ask if the person takes any chest pain medication for a known heart condition
    • Help the person take the medication (usually nitroglycerin, which is placed under the tongue)
    • Call for emergency medical help
    • If the person is unconscious and unresponsive, call for medical help immediately and then begin CPR
    • Do not leave the person alone except to call for help, if necessary
    • Do not allow the person to deny the symptoms and convince you not to  call for emergency help
    • Do not wait to see if the symptoms go away
    • Do not give the person anything by mouth unless a heart medication (such as nitroglycerin) has been prescribed